Stanford encylopedia of philosophy. Social norms, the informal rules that govern behavi...

Sep 10, 2004 · George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne, was o

Sep 8, 2003 · Zombies. First published Mon Sep 8, 2003; substantive revision Sat Mar 25, 2023. Zombies in philosophy are imaginary creatures designed to illuminate problems about consciousness and its relation to the physical world. Unlike the ones in films or witchcraft, they are exactly like us in all physical respects but without conscious experiences: by ... May 15, 2007 · 3. Naturalism. Recall that naturalism is the view that a physical life is central to life’s meaning, that even if there is no spiritual realm, a substantially meaningful life is possible. Like supernaturalism, contemporary naturalism admits of two distinguishable variants, moderate and extreme (Metz 2019). Heraclitus. First published Thu Feb 8, 2007; substantive revision Tue Sep 3, 2019. A Greek philosopher of Ephesus (near modern Kuşadası, Turkey) who was active around 500 BCE, Heraclitus propounded a distinctive theory which he expressed in oracular language. He is best known for his doctrines that things are constantly changing (universal ...The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy organizes scholars from around the world in philosophy and related disciplines to create and maintain an up-to-date reference work. Co-Principal Editors: Edward N. Zalta and Uri NodelmanA marketing philosophy is a foundational idea that becomes a part of all of the work that a marketing department accomplishes for a company or organization.First published Wed Feb 23, 2005; substantive revision Wed Oct 17, 2018. Pythagoras, one of the most famous and controversial ancient Greek philosophers, lived from ca. 570 to ca. 490 BCE. He spent his early years on the island of Samos, off the coast of modern Turkey. At the age of forty, however, he emigrated to the city of Croton in southern ...Truth is one of the central subjects in philosophy. It is also one of the largest. Truth has been a topic of discussion in its own right for thousands of years. Moreover, a huge variety of issues in philosophy relate to truth, either by relying on theses about truth, or implying theses about truth. It would be impossible to survey all there is ...Jun 13, 2006 · Truth is one of the central subjects in philosophy. It is also one of the largest. Truth has been a topic of discussion in its own right for thousands of years. Moreover, a huge variety of issues in philosophy relate to truth, either by relying on theses about truth, or implying theses about truth. It would be impossible to survey all there is ... Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy – http://plato.stanford.edu/. Reference Reviews, 29(8), 14-16 - November 2015. https://doi.org/10.1108/rr-06-2015-0155 ...Aristotle’s Rhetoric. First published Thu May 2, 2002; substantive revision Tue Mar 15, 2022. Aristotle’s Rhetoric has had an unparalleled influence on the development of the art of rhetoric. In addition to Aristotle’s disciples and followers, the so-called Peripatetic philosophers (see Fortenbaugh/Mirhady 1994), famous Roman teachers of ...Sep 10, 2004 · George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne, was one of the great philosophers of the early modern period. He was a brilliant critic of his predecessors, particularly Descartes, Malebranche, and Locke. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. A A. Developed by Stanford University Philosophy professors, this encyclopedia features hundreds of articles. Link: http ...Existence. First published Wed Oct 10, 2012; substantive revision Tue May 5, 2020. Existence raises deep and important problems in metaphysics, philosophy of language, and philosophical logic. Many of the issues can be organized around the following two questions: Is existence a property of individuals? and Assuming that existence is a property ...The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy ( SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible …William of Ockham (c. 1287–1347) is, along with Thomas Aquinas and John Duns Scotus, among the most prominent figures in the history of philosophy during the High Middle Ages. He is probably best known today for his espousal of metaphysical nominalism; indeed, the methodological principle known as “Ockham’s Razor” is named after him.1. Life and Works. Lucius Annaeus Seneca (c. 1 BCE – CE 65) was born in Corduba (Spain) and educated—in rhetoric and philosophy—in Rome. Seneca had a highly successful, and quite dramatic, political career.The data comes from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, the web's oldest and arguably most credible open-access source of philosophical information. Launched two …The Problem of Evil. First published Mon Sep 16, 2002; substantive revision Tue Mar 3, 2015. The epistemic question posed by evil is whether the world contains undesirable states of affairs that provide the basis for an argument that makes it unreasonable to believe in the existence of God. This discussion is divided into eight sections.Plato on Rhetoric and Poetry. First published Mon Dec 22, 2003; substantive revision Wed Feb 12, 2020. Plato’s discussions of rhetoric and poetry are both extensive and influential. As in so many other cases, he sets the agenda for the subsequent tradition. And yet understanding his remarks about each of these topics—rhetoric and poetry ...Virtue Ethics. Virtue ethics is currently one of three major approaches in normative ethics. It may, initially, be identified as the one that emphasizes the virtues, or moral character, in contrast to the approach that emphasizes duties or rules (deontology) or that emphasizes the consequences of actions (consequentialism).[This was the previous entry on scientific realism in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy — see the version history.] Worrall, John, “ Miracles, Pessimism, and Scientific Realism , unpublished manuscript.First published Mon Jan 7, 2002; substantive revision Thu Nov 3, 2022. The term “free will” has emerged over the past two millennia as the canonical designator for a significant kind of control over one’s actions. Questions concerning the nature and existence of this kind of control (e.g., does it require and do we have the freedom to do ...Zombies. First published Mon Sep 8, 2003; substantive revision Sat Mar 25, 2023. Zombies in philosophy are imaginary creatures designed to illuminate problems about consciousness and its relation to the physical world. Unlike the ones in films or witchcraft, they are exactly like us in all physical respects but without conscious experiences: by ...The Definition of Art. The definition of art is controversial in contemporary philosophy. Whether art can be defined has also been a matter of controversy. The philosophical usefulness of a definition of art has also been debated. Contemporary definitions can be classified with respect to the dimensions of art they emphasize.May 13, 2003 · First published Tue May 13, 2003; substantive revision Sat Feb 13, 2016. Mereology (from the Greek μερος, ‘part’) is the theory of parthood relations: of the relations of part to whole and the relations of part to part within a whole. [ 1] Its roots can be traced back to the early days of philosophy, beginning with the Presocratics and ... Gödel’s two incompleteness theorems are among the most important results in modern logic, and have deep implications for various issues. They concern the limits of provability in formal axiomatic theories. The first incompleteness theorem states that in any consistent formal system \ (F\) within which a certain amount of arithmetic can be ...Jun 28, 2018 · This entry provides an introduction to the feminist philosophy section of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP). Overseen by a board of feminist philosophers, this section primarily takes up feminist philosophy of the twentieth and tweny-first century. It has three subsections of entries (as can be seen in Table of Contents under ... Theology presupposes Christian faith, which is an affective response to Christ, and which requires “confidence and assurance of heart” ( Institutes 3.2.33). Yet scholastic philosophy, with its “endless labyrinths” and “obscure definitions”, has “drawn a veil over Christ to hide him” ( Institutes 3.2.2).May 17, 2005 · Friendship. Friendship, as understood here, is a distinctively personal relationship that is grounded in a concern on the part of each friend for the welfare of the other, for the other’s sake, and that involves some degree of intimacy. As such, friendship is undoubtedly central to our lives, in part because the special concern we have for ... First published Tue May 13, 2003; substantive revision Sat Feb 13, 2016. Mereology (from the Greek μερος, ‘part’) is the theory of parthood relations: of the relations of part to whole and the relations of part to part within a whole. [ 1] Its roots can be traced back to the early days of philosophy, beginning with the Presocratics and ...First published Thu Jun 12, 2014; substantive revision Tue Oct 4, 2022. Moral arguments for God’s existence form a diverse family of arguments that reason from some feature of morality or the moral life to the existence of God, usually understood as a morally good creator of the universe. Moral arguments are both important and interesting.7.4.2016 ... The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy puts other big name internet encyclopedias to shame.5. Locke and Punishment. John Locke defined political power as “a right of making laws with penalties of death, and consequently all less Penalties” ( Two Treatises 2.3). Locke’s theory of punishment is thus central to his view of politics and part of what he considered innovative about his political philosophy.The term “value theory” is used in at least three different ways in philosophy. In its broadest sense, “value theory” is a catch-all label used to encompass all branches of moral philosophy, social and political philosophy, aesthetics, and sometimes feminist philosophy and the philosophy of religion — whatever areas of philosophy are deemed to encompass some …Formal epistemology explores knowledge and reasoning using “formal” tools, tools from math and logic. For example, a formal epistemologist might use probability theory to explain how scientific reasoning works. Or she might use modal logic to defend a particular theory of knowledge. The questions that drive formal epistemology are often the ...Aristotle: Ethics: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Richard Kraut · Philosophy. Research output: Other contribution.9.2.2021 ... The Meaning of Life (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). Page 10 of 21 https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/life-meaning/. The counterexamples ...1. Introduction. At the center of Plato’s shorter ethical works is the Apology of Socrates , which consists of a speech purportedly given by Socrates at his trial, and is probably the closest of Plato’s works to the historical Socrates. The Apology is closely linked to two other works. The first is the Euthyphro , which shows Socrates ...1. Aims and Methods of Moral Philosophy. The most basic aim of moral philosophy, and so also of the Groundwork, is, in Kant’s view, to “seek out” the foundational principle of a “metaphysics of morals,” which Kant understands as a system of a priori moral principles that apply the CI to human persons in all times and cultures.Karl Popper is generally regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of science of the twentieth century. He was also a social and political philosopher of considerable stature, a self-professed critical-rationalist, a dedicated opponent of all forms of scepticism and relativism in science and in human affairs generally and a committed …Aristotle: Ethics: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Richard Kraut · Philosophy. Research output: Other contribution.Karl Marx (1818–1883) is often treated as a revolutionary, an activist rather than a philosopher, whose works inspired the foundation of many communist regimes in the twentieth century. It is certainly hard to find many thinkers who can be said to have had comparable influence in the creation of the modern world.“Game Theory, Evolution, and Justice,” Philosophy and Public Affairs, 28(4): 325–358. –––, 2018. Strategic Justice: Convention and Problems of Balancing Divergent Interests, New York: Oxford University Press. Weisberg, Michael, 2007a. “Who is a Modeler?” The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 58(2): 207–233.Bell’s Theorem is the collective name for a family of results, all of which involve the derivation, from a condition on probability distributions inspired by considerations of local causality, together with auxiliary assumptions usually thought of as mild side-assumptions, of probabilistic predictions about the results of spatially separated ...First published Thu Sep 23, 1999; substantive revision Wed Nov 25, 2020. Properties are those entities that can be predicated of things or, in other words, attributed to them. Thus, properties are often called predicables. Other terms for them are “attributes”, “qualities”, “features”, “characteristics”, “types”.Epistemology of Geometry. Geometrical knowledge typically concerns two kinds of things: theoretical or abstract knowledge contained in the definitions, axioms, theorems, and proofs in a system of geometry; and some knowledge of the external world, such as is expressed in terms of a system of physical geometry. The nature of the …In the philosophy of mind, dualism is the theory that the mental and the physical – or mind and body or mind and brain – are, in some sense, radically different kinds of things. Because common sense tells us that there are physical bodies, and because there is intellectual pressure towards producing a unified view of the world, one could ...Encyclopedias · Open access · Publishing · Encyclopedias. Published as. Morrison, Heather and Michael McIntosh. "Stanford Encylopedia of Philosophy". Charleston ...Francis Bacon. Francis Bacon (1561–1626) was one of the leading figures in natural philosophy and in the field of scientific methodology in the period of transition from the Renaissance to the early modern era. As a lawyer, member of Parliament, and Queen's Counsel, Bacon wrote on questions of law, state and religion, as well as on ...1. The Basic Idea 1.1 Introduced. The term ‘alienation’ is usually thought to have comparatively modern European origins. In English, the term had emerged by the early fifteenth century, already possessing an interesting cluster of associations.The Problem of Evil. First published Mon Sep 16, 2002; substantive revision Tue Mar 3, 2015. The epistemic question posed by evil is whether the world contains undesirable states of affairs that provide the basis for an argument that makes it unreasonable to believe in the existence of God. This discussion is divided into eight sections.Love. This essay focuses on personal love, or the love of particular persons as such. Part of the philosophical task in understanding personal love is to distinguish the various kinds of personal love. For example, the way in which I love my wife is seemingly very different from the way I love my mother, my child, and my friend.Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679), whose current reputation rests largely on his political philosophy, was a thinker with wide-ranging interests. In philosophy, he defended a range of materialist, nominalist, and empiricist views against Cartesian and Aristotelian alternatives. In physics, his work was influential on Leibniz, and led him into ...In the philosophical literature, the term “abduction” is used in two related but different senses. In both senses, the term refers to some form of explanatory reasoning. However, in the historically first sense, it refers to the place of explanatory reasoning in generating hypotheses, while in the sense in which it is used most frequently ...have since 1995 been developing and implementing the concept of a dynamic reference work (DRW) to provide a solution to these problems, while maintaining.Behaviorism. First published Fri May 26, 2000; substantive revision Fri Jan 13, 2023. It has sometimes been said that “behave is what organisms do.”. Behaviorism is built on this assumption, and its goal is to promote the scientific study of behavior. The behavior, in particular, of individual organisms. Not of social groups.Social norms, the informal rules that govern behavior in groups and societies, have been extensively studied in the social sciences. Anthropologists have described how social norms function in different cultures (Geertz 1973), sociologists have focused on their social functions and how they motivate people to act (Durkheim 1895 [1982], 1950 ...Experimental philosophy is an approach to philosophy that explicitly draws on experimental knowledge established by the sciences to address philosophical questions (see the entry on experimental moral philosophy). There are three significant ways in which experimental philosophy has played an important role in discussions of moral relativism.Our implementation of a DRW is embodied by the Stanford Encyclo-pedia of Philosophy (SEP) <http://plato.stanford.edu/>. In the remain-der of this paper, we document this particular …Dec 14, 2005 · Although the term “epistemology” is no more than a couple of centuries old, the field of epistemology is at least as old as any in philosophy. In different parts of its extensive history, different facets of epistemology have attracted attention. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Oddities. Ioannes · March 9, 2023. I'm hoping someone has worked through this some before and can explain the best ...Decision Theory. First published Wed Dec 16, 2015; substantive revision Fri Oct 9, 2020. Decision theory is concerned with the reasoning underlying an agent’s choices, whether this is a mundane choice between taking the bus or getting a taxi, or a more far-reaching choice about whether to pursue a demanding political career. (Note that ...Aug 25, 2011 · Agent-Based Modeling in the Philosophy of Science (Dunja Šešelja) [NEW: September 7, 2023] Cosmology: Methodological Debates in the 1930s and 1940s (George Gale) [REVISED: September 7, 2023 ] Changes are prior to September 21, 2023 (Main text, Bibliography) and are available in Fall 2023 Edition. Epistemology of Geometry. Geometrical knowledge typically concerns two kinds of things: theoretical or abstract knowledge contained in the definitions, axioms, theorems, and proofs in a system of geometry; and some knowledge of the external world, such as is expressed in terms of a system of physical geometry. The nature of the …Act consequentialism is the claim that an act is morally right if and only if that act maximizes the good, that is, if and only if the total amount of good for all minus the total amount of bad for all is greater than this net amount for any incompatible act available to the agent on that occasion. (Cf. Moore 1912, chs. 1–2.)May 15, 2007 · 3. Naturalism. Recall that naturalism is the view that a physical life is central to life’s meaning, that even if there is no spiritual realm, a substantially meaningful life is possible. Like supernaturalism, contemporary naturalism admits of two distinguishable variants, moderate and extreme (Metz 2019). Critical Theory. First published Tue Mar 8, 2005. Critical Theory has a narrow and a broad meaning in philosophy and in the history of the social sciences. “Critical Theory” in the narrow sense designates several generations of German philosophers and social theorists in the Western European Marxist tradition known as the Frankfurt School.1. Life, Work, and Influence. Born in 1770 in Stuttgart, Hegel spent the years 1788–1793 as a student in nearby Tübingen, studying first philosophy, and then theology, and forming friendships with fellow students, the future great romantic poet Friedrich Hölderlin (1770–1843) and Friedrich von Schelling (1775–1854), who, like Hegel, would become one of …Dec 16, 2015 · First published Wed Dec 16, 2015; substantive revision Fri Oct 9, 2020. Decision theory is concerned with the reasoning underlying an agent’s choices, whether this is a mundane choice between taking the bus or getting a taxi, or a more far-reaching choice about whether to pursue a demanding political career. (Note that “agent” here stands ... First published Tue Aug 3, 2004; substantive revision Fri Aug 12, 2022. Peter Abelard (1079–21 April 1142) [‘Abailard’ or ‘Abaelard’ or ‘Habalaarz’ and so on] was the pre-eminent philosopher and theologian of the twelfth century. The teacher of his generation, he was also famous as a poet and a musician.Plutarch of Chaeronea in Boeotia ( ca. 45–120 CE) was a Platonist philosopher, best known to the general public as author of his “Parallel Lives” of paired Greek and Roman statesmen and military leaders. He was a voluminous writer, author also of a collection of “Moralia” or “Ethical Essays,” mostly in dialogue format, many of .... Plutarch of Chaeronea in Boeotia ( ca. 4Social norms, the informal rules that go 1. Overview. Work in Artificial Intelligence (AI) has produced computer programs that can beat the world chess champion, control autonomous vehicles, complete our email sentences, and defeat the best human players on the television quiz show Jeopardy.AI has also produced programs with which one can converse in natural …Human rights are norms that aspire to protect all people everywhere from severe political, legal, and social abuses. Examples of human rights are the right to freedom of religion, the right to a fair trial when charged with a crime, the right not to be tortured, and the right to education. The philosophy of human rights addresses … Kevin N. Cawley (University College Cork) Philosophy of Language: Jeffrey C. King (Rutgers University) Ben Caplan (University of Kansas) Elisabeth Camp (Rutgers University) Robin Jeshion (University of Southern California) Ofra Magidor (Oxford University) Latin American and Iberian Philosophy: Otávio Bueno (University of Miami)Love. This essay focuses on personal love, or the love of particular persons as such. Part of the philosophical task in understanding personal love is to distinguish the various kinds of personal love. For example, the way in which I love my wife is seemingly very different from the way I love my mother, my child, and my friend. 1. Aims and Methods of Moral Philosophy. The most basic aim of ...

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